HOW PT CAN HELP WITH FMS

HOW CAN PT HELP WITH FIBROMYALGIA?

I was recently asked in an open forum how PT can help fibromyalgia.  I hope the summary of this article sheds light on how important of a role PT’s play in this ailment.

“…Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) as a syndrome characterized by chronic widespread pain and tenderness in at least 11 of 18 predefined tender points”

First, when something is characterized as a “syndrome” it means that there is a cluster of symptoms that are common amongst people, but there is no definite test in order to prove that it is the cause of symptoms.

This makes FMS difficult to treat and understand because we don’t have a specific test in which to try to “fix” the underlying cause.

This article will go into what we know about FMS and what is hypothesized about FMS to further the patient’s knowledge of how PT can help.

“…prevalence rates between 0.5% to 6%”

This means that in the general population we will see this diagnosis between 5 in 1,000 and 6 in 100.  Depending on the setting that a PT works in, the prevalence rate may be much higher.  I can say personally that this is either the primary diagnosis or a secondary diagnosis in about 25% of my current caseload.

“…high comorbidity with other disorders, particularly chronic fatigue syndrome and mental disorders, including depression and anxiety disorder”

FMS is not frequently a diagnosis on its own. The patient with FMS may also have other issues such as chronic fatigue, which is not the same as FMS.  The person may also have a psychological issue, which may play a role in FMS.

“FMS is not only a chronic pain syndrome but also consists of a whole range of symptoms referring to effort intolerance and stress intolerance, as well as hypersensitivity for pain and other sensory stimuli”

Fibromyalgia goes well beyond pain only.  The patient with FMS is not frequently able to tolerate a great deal of activity without worsening of symptoms.  This is a major role for the PT to educate the patient regarding when it is safe to push harder and when the patient may need to back off activity in order to allow the system (read that as body as a whole) to calm down. A good book for this topic is “A World of Hurt” by Annie O’Connor and Melissa Kolski.

Hypersensitivity is a key finding in FMS and this will be spoken about later in the article.

“The precise etiology and pathogenesis of FMS remain undefined, and there is no definite cure”

When I read this, it sounds doom and gloom, but if you read it more like a science person instead of as a layperson it makes sense.  If we don’t know the cause of a specific action, then we can’t possibly know how to stop the action or prevent it in the first place.

“It is not our intention to advocate that physical therapists are able to manage a complex disorder such as fibromyalgia on their own”

Because there are multiple components to the syndrome (remember the psychological issues spoken of earlier), this is not a problem that can be handled by one professional without help from others.  As PT’s, we can play a role in managing this process, but that’s it…we play a role.

“Fibromyalgia syndrome is characterized by sensitization of the central nervous system, which explains the majority of, if not all, symptoms…Once central sensitization is established, little nociceptive input is required to maintain it…an increased responsiveness to a variety of peripheral stimuli, including mechanical pressure, chemical substances, light, sound, cold, heat, and electrical stimuli…results in a large decreased load tolerance of the senses and the neuromuscular system.”

When your nerves are more sensitive, then the sensations that you feel such as pain, heat, pressure, etc may be felt quicker and more intense than those without this syndrome.  This is the concept of little nociceptive input (pain input) is required to maintain sensitivity.  For instance, when someone has a lower threshold for pain (not an ego thing) then smaller deviations will cause pain.  I have treated patients that claimed to have increased pain from being touched by a feather! It is real and the patient’s experience of pain cannot be denied.

“…pain facilitation and pain inhibition is influenced by cognitions, emotions, and behaviors such as catastrophizing, hypervigilance, avoidance behavior and somatization”

This is a great article because the authors did a great job of attempting to summarize FMS in a concise manner. Pain is an experience.  It doesn’t mean that a tissue is injured, as pain can be felt in the absence of injury.  A person can also have a severe injury and not have pain.  A person’s emotional state can override the pain response. For instance, I experienced a major injury to my face in which my nose was pulled from my face during a weightlifting movement.  I had no pain until I actually saw the injury in a mirror.  The injury was unchanged from the minutes of standing at the bar until I went into the locker room and saw the injury.  What changed was my mental state.  I started worrying about severe damage, financial concerns, loss of work etc.  All of these are the same worries that everyone else has when they experience a pain that is not explained (this is the definition of catastrophizing).

Avoidance behavior means that a person will stop performing activities because of fear of making symptoms worse. Finally, somatization indicates that a person experiences symptoms in the absence of a test that can show anything is actually causing the pain.

Avoiding activity and catastrophizing actually causes a change in the nervous system in that it may sensitize the spinal cord.

“…abnormal functioning of the stress system seems to occur mostly in the aftermath of a long period of overburdening by physical and emotional stressors and to be precipitated by an additional trigger in the form of an acute physical or emotional event.”

Now you, as the reader, can see why PT’s can’t solve this puzzle alone.  There are so many variables that play a role in this syndrome that more than one professional needs to be involved in the care.

“…many patients with FMS have maladaptive illness beliefs, cognition, and behaviors that preclude successful rehabilitation.”

The primary intervention that takes place in therapy, almost regardless of the diagnosis, is education.  When a patient understands their own beliefs and how they may play a role in hindering progress, we have actually reached a milestone.  This is very much based in education.  If we can educate the patient enough regarding pain and more importantly how to respond to pain and its meaning, then we can progress towards other interventions.  If we can’t teach the patient or come to a mutual understanding regarding pain and how it is thought to work, then progress will be difficult.  As stated in the following portion of the article; “Poor understanding of pain may lead to the acquisition of maladaptive attitudes and behavior in relation to pain”. This means that the number one treatment that PT’s can offer to patients with FMS, and any other pain disorder for that matter, is education.

“…more adequate pain beliefs lead to increased confidence, which, in turn, leads to increased activity levels. An education course directed at improving self-efficacy for the management of the pain disorder ameliorated symptom severity and improved physical function”

We have to break the cycle of pain.  This may be achieved by breaking any part of the cycle.  The thought is that if we can increase a person’s activity level, or tolerance, that we could improve or decrease how sensitive the nerves are to outside stimuli.  This would allow a person to slowly tolerate more and more activity with less pain over time.  This is considered graded exposure.

“Evidence in support of activity management alone for those with FMS is currently unavailable. However, it is generally included in cognitive behavioral therapy.”

The thought is that if we can reduce the stress (think physical, emotional and otherwise) that a person is experiencing, that we would be able to reduce flare-ups.  This is a good thought, but hasn’t been proven.  What we know is that we need to increase activity levels because there are many good benefits from an active lifestyle such as decreased risk of mortality, increased lifespan, and improved quality of life.

“Limited evidence supports that use of spinal manipulation and moderate evidence supports the use of massage therapy in patients with FMS”

There are many in the field of PT, including the American Physical Therapy Association, has stated that the passive use of physical therapy should be questioned if it is the primary treatment.  Passive therapy is treatment done TO the patient instead of done BY the patient.  This “passive therapy” also fosters the dependence of the patient on the therapist.

When a patient is dependent on a therapist for improvement, the winner is always the therapist and his/her bank account.  In the end, we want to empower the patient to take control of his/her pain status and start to experiment with activity in order to establish a baseline activity that can be performed without flare-ups.

“Strong evidence supports aerobic exercise, and moderate evidence supports muscle strength training for the management of FMS”

This is an easy statement to make, but many patients tell me that “they couldn’t tolerate any exercise”. This is where the therapist-patient team (therapeutic alliance) really comes into play.  It is the therapist’s job to listen to the patient in order to provide treatment strategies that will improve the patient’s fitness levels, WITHOUT flaring-up symptoms.

“Physical exercise is troublesome for many patients with FMS due to activity-induced pain, especially for patients with severe disabilities”

This statement sums up the challenge of physical therapy and the challenge for the physical therapist.  A patient with FMS cannot be issued a check-list of exercises to perform in the clinic.  There has to be a relationship of trust between the therapist and the patient.  When a patient comes into the clinic, he/she trusts that the therapist is issuing interventions with the patient’s end-goal in mind.  If, at any time, the patient feels that the therapist is not providing GREAT care, then the patient needs to leave and find a therapist that treats them as a person and not a number! This is important and will come up again towards the end of the article.

“Nonspecific factors such as the patient’s emotional processing of the encounter with the health care professional, the quality of the therapeutic alliance, and the patient’s treatment preferences may be important in predicting therapeutic outcomes.”

THIS IS HUGE! The emotional processing of the encounter….Read that again….How the patient perceives being treated during the session plays a role in the outcomes. When we know that there is an emotional component to FMS, it is our responsibility to ensure that we accommodate this by trying to provide the best experience as possible. This starts from the initial phone call and progresses through the initial visit.  This perception starts prior to the patient coming into the clinic.  The patient needs to be heard and feel important in order to get the best results. I would say that this should hold true to all patients and not just for those with chronic pain or FMS.

Thanks for reading and I hope it was helpful.

Excerpts taken from:

Nijs J, Mannerkorpi K, Descheemaeker F, et al. Primary Care Physical Therapy in People with Fibromyalgia: Opportunities and Boundaries Within a Monodisciplinary Setting. Phys Ther. 2010;90(12):1815-1822.

Not all patients get the same treatment for pain because not all therapists have the same knowledge

“Exponential increases in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanning to identify these damaged structures (believed to be causing low back pain) have led to escalating rates of spinal fusions and disc replacements.”

There is a trend towards increased surgery rates in the US for low back pain.  We see upwards of a 777% increase in spine surgery for low back pain.  The sad part is that the your chance of having surgery is more dependent on your geographic location than other variables.  It has been said that if you are trying to avoid a surgery that you should also avoid an MRI…which takes us to the next fact.

“…evidence that abnormal MRI findings are prevalent in asymptomatic populations and are poor predictors of future LBP (low back pain) and disability”

In other words, if you go looking for a problem…you’re likely to find one.  The “problem” on the MRI may not actually be causing your symptoms though, as we see “problems” with people that have no symptoms.  To put it another way, if a “herniated disc” was always a cause of pain, then everyone with a herniated disc will have pain.  We know that this isn’t true.  This indicates that the structure/tissue that is a “problem” on the MRI may not be causing any problems at all during your day.

“…providing a patient with a pathoanatomical diagnosis can result in increased fear and iatrogenic disability”

Lots of big words there, so let’s work through this together.

Patho: bad

Anatomical: body parts

Therefore: pathoanatomical = bad body parts

This is typically what you hear when you have imaging (MRI, X-ray, CT scan) performed.  Herniated disc, degenerative joint, arthritis, stenosis. All of these words mean that something abnormal was seen on the image.

Iatro: means relating to medical treatment

Genic: means coming from

This means that the “iatrogenic disability” could be disability coming from medical treatment.

I know what you’re asking: “How can the medical interaction with a doctor/therapist/medical professional be causing the disability?”

This is a great question that the authors of the article will go into in a short while. More to come.

“It is increasingly clear that persistent and disabling LBP is not an accurate measure of local tissue pathology or damage alone…it is best seen as a protective mechanism produced by the neuro-immune-endocrine systems in response to the individual’s perceived level of danger, threat or disruption to homeostasis.”

WHAAAT?!

This means that the tissue that was previously damaged may not be the culprit for prolonged pain.  For instance, your body can have a protective mechanism produced by the brain when it feels threatened.  The brain is powerful in creating change. For instance, watch this video to see how quickly it can start to change.

“…pain and behavioral responses may fluctuate based on a person’s perception of threat, levels of attention to pain, mood, contextual social stressors, sleep, and activity levels.”

If you feel threatened, your pain levels may increase.  Removing threat through distraction has been shown to be helpful in multiple studies.  Tetris seems to be one of the most studied games.  Also, math is more painful to some than others.  In the clinic, I have used math as a distraction and watched how pain rapidly resolves and some patients are able to perform movements that they wouldn’t consider performing if they weren’t distracted.  There is some thoughts that the more often we ask you about pain…the worse it actually gets because we force the patient to emphasize the feelings of pain compared to their current function.  Finally, we know that a lack of sleep can cause a myriad of problems from difficulty concentrating to an increase in pain due to increased nerve sensitivity.  These are all factors that play a role when a patient comes to the clinic experiencing pain.

“This contemporary understanding demands a shift away from providing a simplistic structural and/or biomechanical diagnosis and treatment for LBP…enables the patient to become a partner in a therapeutic journey”

For some patients, we can correlate a “problem” on the MRI with their symptoms, but in a subgroup of patients, we are unable to do this.  For that subgroup, we need to look past the pathoanatomical model and therapeutic alliance (the teamwork between the therapist and patient) becomes very important in order to empower the patient with regards to symptom response and education.

“Growing evidence suggests that current practice is discordant with contemporary evidence, and is in fact often exacerbating the problem.”

We may not need to abandon the patho model completely, but we as practitioners need to have more than just the patho model.  In order to prevent iatrogenic pain beliefs, we need to grow our skills in order to better help you…the patient.  If you are going to therapy and are not seeing relief within 6 visits and don’t feel that your therapist has a strong understanding of your pain…seek a second opinion. Not all Medical Doctors are the same, and the same can be said for physical therapists.

Excerpts taken from

O’Sullivan P, Caneiro JP, O’Keefe M, O’Sullivan K. Viewpoint: Unraveling the complexity of low back pain. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2016;46(11):932-937.

 

 

Get PT 2nd

“out of 137 patients, 100 had been recommended for spinal fusion. After evaluation, the group advised 58 of those patients to pursue a non operative plan of care”
There’s a slogan going around social media saying “GETPT1ST” I don’t know if I completely agree with the saying, but I can’t disagree with that either. The saying could just as well be get PT second. At some point a second opinion has to come in to play for a patient’s dysfunctions or pain. That second opinion, in my belief, has to come from someone without a financial stake in the surgery. This could be a physiatrist, PT, or a separate surgeon, which was done in the study cited. 
The take home point is that 58% of those recommended for spinal fusion were recommended to seek a separate form of care, thus advised to avoid the surgery initially. What this means for the patients is that a second opinion should always be sought out, because the person advising a plan of care is advising it from their perspective. I’d love to say that everyone has the patient’s best interest in mind, but I can’t. In that case, the patient must become more educated and advocate for him/herself. For instance, a surgeon does surgery, a physical therapist does physical therapy and a physiatrist does physiatry. We see problems from different lenses and therefore will advise different plans of care for varying presentations. Some patients need surgery and some don’t. Some patients need physical therapy and some don’t. We can’t say PT first because PT is not magic and can’t fix everyone’s issues. 
“As clinicians, we bring our own biases into the treatment plan for patients”
Want to decrease unnecessary surgeries? Have a multidisciplinary team do evaluations, researchers say. PT in Motion. April 2017:46. 

What do pigs and humans have in common?

“The majority of in vitro research has examined repeated axial loading with the spine in a neutral position from which observed herniations are extremely rare.”

 

This means that loading much weight onto your shoulders doesn’t appear to affect the disc negatively, aside from compressing it. Picture the people doing strongman, powerlifting, Olympic weightlifting or Crossfit. All of these sports are safe regardless of how much weight is being used, as long as technique remains good, while under the weight.

 

“The most consistent development of disc herniation with repeated loading conditions was achieved by Gordon et al. In vitro human lumbar motion segments were flexed from a neutral posture to 7 degrees of flexion with a small axial twist motion. All 14 of the motion segments examined failed with herniations of the Intervertebral disc (either nuclear protrusion or extrusion) with an average of 40,000 loading cycles to failure. It appears that load, motion, degenerative condition, and repetition require further investigation as prerequisites to disc herniation.”

 

Stu is one of the great gurus of back pain. He states in his papers that he does not endorse a specific number of flexion cycles to create a herniation. This is individual for each person. Also of note is that the above experiment is not done on a live person, but on a cadaver. This means that there is little compensatory motion that can occur, which may occur in real life. For example, there is one paper (don’t have it currently, but I will find it for later) that postulates that the posterior longitudinal ligament (a strong ligament on the back of the spine) may be a protective mechanism for back pain, which would then work to prevent a disc herniation by absorbing some of the flexion load. It’s just an idea though and is no more right or wrong than the number of loading cycles found in the above quote.

 

“The cervical spines of 26 porcine specimens were obtained immediately following death. Pig cervical spines have been shown to be the section closest to human lumbar spines for anatomical and biomechanical characteristics.”

 

The authors make is sound so humane that they waited until the pigs died, but then went on to say that the mean age was 6 months. They died for science. What is most important though is that this study was performed on pig spines! The results can be correlated to humans, but again this will not be precise because the subjects aren’t real live humans.

 

“The remains of any soft tissue and discs were dissected from the cranial and caudal endplates.”

 

The muscles were removed. The muscles, tendons and ligaments provide active and passive support to the joint. Without this support, we are only looking at how the spine joint moves in a vacuum. This again makes it hard to take the results of this study and apply them to humans. We can though take the idea of the study and generalize it to another spine.

“Herniation occurred with modest levels of compression and flexion/extension movements but with a high number of motion cycles. Specimens tested in the lowest compressive force group had nuclei that were intact after 86,400 flexion cycles…All herniations that were created during testing occurred in the posterior or posterior-lateral areas of the annulus.”

 

The first thing to take from this is that the spinal segment is strong. It can withstand over 80,000 cycles of flexion/extension, without resting, and some were able to withstand the force without significant anatomical changes. All herniations were posterior or posterior lateral. This is consistent with what we see in the clinic. Very rarely is there an anterior herniation, but in real life there is also a very strong ligament on the anterior portion of the spine, which would impede a herniation in this direction.

 

“…highly repetitive flexion/extension motions and modest flexion/extension moments, even with relatively low magnitude compression joint forces, consistently resulted in Intervertebral disc herniations. Larger axial compressive force resulted in more frequent and more severe disc injuries…there is no doubt that disc herniation is a cumulative process that can result with modest forces if sufficient flexion/extension cycles are applied.”

 

This is a mouthful. Let’s start by saying that if you spend a lot of time in a flexed (slouched posture position), this may lead to a posterior disc herniation. It’s kind of like the straw that broke the camel’s back. It may not happen the first time, but the more often one spends in flexion the more that the nucleus (the pudding substance inside the disc) will travel towards the border of the disc (annulus). This article doesn’t state what happens to the disc when we rest and stop spending time in a flexed position. For instance, what is not stated is that if we flexion for an entire day, but then move in the opposite direction (extension), do we then counteract the effects of flexion? This article doesn’t say this, but one would have to infer if we could create a herniation that we can reduce a herniation with movement. More to come in future posts.

 

“While there may be a tendency to identify an event that ‘caused’ an intervertebral disc herniation, this work together with our other experiments have led us to form the opinion that this is only a culminating event and that the real cause had already occurred.”

 

This quote says it best and I will leave it at that.

 

Thanks for reading. If you would like to learn more about a topic, feel free to ask a question on here or at my Facebook page @movementthinker. I love reading research and if I can read something that may help you specifically then it is more functional than just reading stuff that I enjoy.

 

Callaghan JP, McGill SM. Intervertebral disc herniation: studies on a porcine model exposed to highly repetitive flexion/extension motion with compression force. Clinical Biomechanics. 2001;16:28-37.

 

link to article

To slouch or not to slouch?

“Epidemiologic studies have shown that individuals in occupations that involve prolonged periods of sitting experience a high incidence of low-back pain”

I don’t think that this surprises anyone, but as we continue to advance with technology, the jobs that require mostly standing are going away. Put the data into today’s terms. How many of us had cable t.v when we were kids? How many of us had tablets and laptops as kids? I didn’t and was more active because of it. My daughter would be extremely content to watch Curious George on the tablet all day instead of playing. This sedentary nature is hard to break and usually results in crying until she realizes that we are actually going to play. This research demonstrating sitting as a correlation to back pain needs to be looked at seriously, as our society is sitting more on average, at least in my opinion.

“When changing from a standing to a sitting posture…an increased load on the spine as measured by Intervertebral disc pressures.”

The study that this is from is the landmark study for measuring disc pressure. Alf Nacchemson’s study on disc pressures was the first of its kind and mostly likely will never be reproduced again. The subjects in the study allowed a needle inserted into the disc in order to read the pressure. Picture a pressure gauge for a tire and how it measures how much air pressure is in the tire. Now picture the same thing, but with a needle at the end, measuring the pressure in your disc. This is no good. In order to do this, the disc itself needs to be punctured. This is why the study will not be reproduced. No review board would ever approve a study in which the participants have an increased risk of injury…just for the sake of measuring.

“…anular failure and gradual disc prolapse following fatigue loading of lumbar discs wedged in flexion…sitting for 1 hour results in significant changes in the mechanical properties of the lumbar Intervertebral disc…Wilder et al propose that lumbar disc herniations can be a direct mechanical consequence of prolonged sitting.”

Anyone out there just adjust his/her sitting posture?

There is a lot of research demonstrating that sitting is bad for you. This can’t be argued. There is a newer article that states that sitting for one hour, while watching t.v., can take up to 22 minutes off of your life. In the phrase of the show that we are currently watching on Hulu…”YOU ARE THE BIGGEST LOSER!”

“…studies have shown that subjects with or without back pain are more comfortable sitting with a lumbar support in a LP (lordotic position) compared to a KP (kyphotic position).”

If you sit up really tall and elevate your chest, your low back will make a hollowed position…this is called lordosis. When you bend forward, your low back will make an arched position (think the overly slouched position) and this is called kyphosis. Previous studies demonstrated that the slouched position was less favorable than a more upright position…ARE YOU KIDDING ME?! Who doesn’t like holding a good slouched position for hours on end?

“McKenzie describes a ‘centralization’ phenomenon whereby certain lumbar movements and positions result in a change in the distribution of referred symptoms from a distal to a more central location”

OKAY…THIS IS HUGE. I have written about centralization in the past, here, here, here, here, and here, but I’ll cover it again…just for you. If you have pain that started in the back and then moved location, specifically into one of the legs…this is no good. If you have back and leg pain that moves from the leg into the back…this is good. This is the basics of centralization. It’s called a phenomenon because we don’t know exactly why it happens, but there is a high correlation between centralization and a disc lesion (such as a herniation), which can also be found here.

“…Donelson et al reported that 76 patients (87%) demonstrated centralization. Further, all individuals exhibiting this phenomenon did so following extension rather than flexion movements”

Let’s start with this study may be a little biased, but that doesn’t negate the information in the study…it just has to be looked at through a lens that takes this into account. This article is co-written by the man, the myth, and the legend Robin McKenzie. I hold this man in high regard, as do many therapists that practice in the orthopedic setting. He was voted the most influential PT of the last century and that is a title that takes a lifetime of hard work, educating others and helping the public at large. Here’s a quick video of the legend… watch Robin treat a patient.   With that said, it was still written by an author that has something to gain from a positive outcome by using lumbar rolls. He has his namesake rolls, so we can expect a good outcome from using the rolls prior to even reading the article. It’s still good information that a person can learn from though.

Ah yes…extension. This means bending backwards such as this video by Yoav Suprun a MDT instructor.

“Excluded from the study were patients with:

  1. Medically diagnosed stenosis, spondylolisthesis or recent fractures;
  2. Neurologic motor deficit:
  3. Surgical intervention for the present episode;
  4. Apophyseal joint or epidural injections administered within the previous 4 weeks;

6….

  1. Obvious deformity of acute list or lateral shift or lumbar kyphosis;
  2. Symptoms of hysteria or anxiety neurosis”

This is important to note that the authors are trying to subcategorize patients that are most likely to benefit from using a lumbar roll with sitting. Not all patients will respond well to extension. Patients with stenosis may not respond to extension. This is not true for all, but is the long standing myth taught in PT school. Patients that come in looking crooked or bent over probably shouldn’t be in this study either. I like the last one though…these authors were trying to think of every patient that may not benefit from a lumbar roll in order to rule out using the rolls on everyone.

“The first 70 patients to present within each of the categories were randomly assigned to either a KP or LP group. Whenever required to sit, the KP group were instructed to do so with their back in a supported but flexed posture. Conversely, the LP group were instructed to sit with their back in a supported but lordotic position.”

This is a decent amount of people in the group so it should give some valuable information. One group had to sit slouched and the other group has to sit upright.

“During their first visit to the clinic, patients were seated on the standard chair and immediately given the questionnaire to complete. They were then seated in their assigned posture for 10 minutes, and the questionnaire was readministered.”

This is actually a pretty good way to test the intervention or “treatment”. A test performed before the treatment and immediately after the intervention is the best way to minimize the number of variables looked at during the second testing. For instance, if I give you an anatomy test and tell you to take the same test after studying and watching t.v and sleeping, it’s hard to say which of the three changed the score on the second test. We can assume studying, but it’s not certain. If all you do is study or sleep or watch t.v., then we can narrow down what would’ve caused a change in score.

“Before leaving the clinic, patients were instructed as to the position they were to adopt, whenever seated, over the next 24-48 hours”

This is the part in which the “scientific rigor” of the study will break down. Over the course of 48 hours, there are so many possibilities of making a pain better or worse and the sitting posture is but one variable. Any outcomes taken after this point waters down the results.

Prior to the interventions, there were no differences between the groups with regards to pain location, leg pain or back pain intensity.

“…while there was a 21% decrease in BPI (back pain intensity) for the LP group, there was a corresponding 14.5% increase in pain for the KP group…reduction in leg pain for the LP group after only 10 minutes of sitting…the very marked reduction in leg pain (56%) for the LP group contrasts with no significant change in pain for the KP group”

There were a greater percentage of patients that responded well to sitting with a more upright posture than those that sat slouched and some of those that slouched actually got worse over time. The advice that out moms gave to stand up tall appears to hold true for some folks.

“…adoption of a LP resulted in 48% of these patients having pain that centralized above the knee after only 10 minutes of sitting…10% for the KP group…24% of the KP group’s pain peripheralized below the knee at POST-TEST 3 compared to 6% for the LP group.”

The first thing to take from this is that an upright posture is not for everyone, in that 6% of those that sat upright actually got worse. Getting worse means that the symptoms that you have from your back actually gets worse into the leg, calf or foot. Now, 48% got better in that the leg pain reduced within 10 minutes. What this means for the patient is that sitting taller is worth a shot if you have pain that radiates into your leg. If you get worse from sitting up tall…stop. It’s really that simple to start with. A lumbar roll could be a useful device to get you to sit more upright. This could be homemade such as a rolled up towel, a purse or a forearm by putting your arm behind your back at about the belly button area.

EXCERPTS TAKEN FROM:

 

Williams HM, Hawley JA, McKenzie RA, van Wijmen PM. A Comparison of the Effects of Two Sitting Postures on Back and Referred Pain. Spine. 1991;16(10):1185-1191.

 

Link to article

 

 

 

 

 

Post 84: Mckenzie (MDT) as a variable for back pain improvement

“Therapists using the McKenzie method classify patients based on repeated end-range trunk movement tests into 1 of 3 main syndromes: derangement, dysfunction and posture.” 
There is a lot here even though they summarized it very succinctly. By the by, one of the authors, Jason Ward, has an awesome podcast called the Mechanical Care Forum that you guys should all check out. He delves into the topics of Mechanical Diagnosis and Therapy mostly, but also has other guests on the show such as Stu McGill, Mulligan (no need for a first name) and others.

 
MDT is a systematic assessment process in order to classify patients into one of three categories. The derangement category has the hallmark sign of centralization and peripheralization. This is being taught in schools with much evidence to support it for good outcomes. RANT: When I was in school this was barely touched upon and MDT was only one of the methods that a person may be exposed to upon graduation. I recently visited Governors State University and was pleased to see that they have added centralization/peripheralization, directional preference and repeated movement exams into the curriculum. The derangement syndrome is classified by rapid change, for better or worse, either symptomatically or mechanically (range of motion, reflex, strength change, sensation changes). The derangement syndrome is the most prevalent syndrome classification in MDT.
 
The second most common syndrome is the dysfunction syndrome. This is further subclassified into two parts: articular dysfunction and contractile dysfunction. Starting with a contractile dysfunction, it is as simple as the name denotes. It is a dysfunction of some of the contractile tissues of the body and is named for the direction of dysfunction. For instance, if there is a “muscle strain” of the shoulder flexors, the patient would demonstrate with pain during contraction of the muscle with pain increasing with increasing load and also pain during the stretch of this muscle. This is a contractile dysfunction into shoulder flexion.
 
One could also have an articular dysfunction, which is a dysfunction of non-contractile tissues. This could be any structure that doesn’t contract, but the joint capsule is one of the structures typically referred to. A deficit in the non-contractile structures should cause a joint to be limited in its range, but not with regards to its strength. The hallmarks of the dysfunction syndrome are both a lack of dramatic change and consistency with regards to the limitation.
 
“The patient may also be categorized ino an “other” category (eg, chronic pain syndrome, surgery, mechanically inconclusive, spinal stenosis, spondylolisthesis, hip, sacroiliac joint dysfunction, and other)if the patient cannot be successfully classified into 1 of the 3 main McKenzie syndromes”
 
I wrote a case series a couple years back that I am working to get published regarding cancer causing back pain. This would be an “other” category. It doesn’t fit one of the 3 presentations and would have to be classified as other and wouldn’t fit into the treatment paradigm for MDT.
 
“Within the McKenzie classification system, evidence supports the prognostic relevance and discriminative utility of 2 pain-pattern classification criteria: centralization and directional preference…Briefly, centralization is characterized by spinal pain and referred spinal symptoms that are progressively abolished in a distal-to-proximal direction in response to therapeutic movement strategies. Directional preference has been defined as a specific movement or posture that decreases the patient’s pain, with or without the pain having changed location, and/or increases the patient’s lumbar range of motion”
 
Where to start? Centralization…there has been much work by Werneke and Hart regarding centralization’s prognostic value for both positive and negative. Also, Skytte 2005ish has an article that reveals that a lack of centralization leads to a 600% increase in the need for invasive procedures. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15928538
 
http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&source=hp&biw=&bih=&q=wernecke+centralization&gbv=2&oq=wernecke+centralization&gs_l=heirloom-hp.3…484.4320.0.4535.23.15.0.8.0.0.100.1014.14j1.15.0….0…1ac.1.34.heirloom-hp..9.14.961.viHMXlkcfYc
 
If you don’t know the story behind Mr. Smith, I will tell it to the best of my recollection. Robin McKenzie, the founder of MDT, had a patient come into the clinic in New Zealand in the 1950’s with back pain that radiated into the leg. Mind you, patients at this time were only performing flexion based exercises (knees-to-chest or chest-to-knees) and extension based exercises (back bends or press-ups) were thought to sever the nerves of the spine if one performed the exercises too aggressively. Hence, they were avoided. Walks in Mr. Smith. Robin was a great therapist and thus he was also a very busy therapist. Robin told Mr. Smith to go into the room and lie down on his belly, forgetting that he had the table positioned in such a manner that the head of the bed was elevated. What this means is that when Mr. Smith was on the table, he was in extension. Robin was so busy in the clinic that he was unable to get to Mr. Smith immediately. In essence, Mr. Smith spent a prolonged period of time in extension. His symptoms rapidly abolished in his leg and he only had back pain remaining. Robin saw this and made an attempt to understand the phenomenon. This lead to 50 years of studying pain patterns until the dynamic disc theory was finally being confirmed in the research. Mr. Smith and Robin effectively changed the way that spines are treated and because of this, Robin was ranked the most influential therapists in the 1900’s by the orthopedic section of the APTA.
 
Directional preference was termed by Dr. Ron Donelson, also author of Rapidly Reversible Back Pain (a good read, but at times boring). A person can have a directional preference in the absence of centralization. There may be a change in mechanical responses prior to a report of centralization, also there are studies documenting directional preferences in joints outside of the spine.
 
“…retrospective analysis of a longitudinal, observational cohort was conducted”
 
This is fancy speak, but the words are important. This means that the researchers observed what happened over the course of time (observational longitudinal), but the information is from a time period prior to actually initiating the study (retrospective). The reason why it’s important is because patient consent is not needed for this type of study, since the treatment was unchanged from what a therapist would do compared to an interventional study in which a person is trying to prove or disprove something is effective.
 
“Patients were classified at intake into the subgroups of centralization, noncentralization, or not classified…using a body diagram”
 
Not all patients will centralize at the time of the initial evaluation. If they do centralize and remain centralized, this is a great sign, but some patients may require up to 7 days in order to centralize, as noted by one of the Werneke studies.
 
“Treatment processes were guided by the patient’s symptomatic and mechanical responses to continual assessments of repeated movements, positioning, and/or manual techniques. If centralization or directional preference was observed, treatment was standardized following MDT assessment and treatment methods.”
 
The problem with this system is that it is elusively easy to use. If during the session, we find movements, positions, or postures that make your symptoms worse, we educate you to discontinue or avoid those positions TEMPORARILY. When we see a directional preference or centralization, we tell you to go forth and do those movements that cause good things to happen. That’s it. For someone well trained, we can find a directional preference in most patients. For those that aren’t trained…well…the system may not work, which is a bummer for the patient because it’s not the systems fault.
 
“The primary findings suggest that (1) classifying patients with lumbar impairments at intake by either McKenzie or pain-pattern classification methods my slightly (around 3%) improve explanatory power in robust risk-adjusted rehabilitations models predicting discharge FS outcomes”
 
Classifying a patient demonstrates improved results compared to not classifying patients. Although this may be a small improvement over other factors that could predict outcome, it is still better than not classifying. When you go to see a therapist as a patient, you want to know how they are classifying you. As a student, you want to know how sophisticated the clinical instructors classification system is. A therapist that is performing interventions because of tradition is not using a good classification system.
 
“…therapists with the highest level of McKenzie training (diploma in MDT) achieved significantly better FS (functional) outcomes compared to therapists who did not have a diploma in MDT”
 
This won’t offend me. I don’t have a Diploma in MDT and personally know many therapists that have earned this distinction. It takes time to complete, a lot of money and time off of work/away from family in order to complete the diploma. If one has access to a therapist with this distinction…please go forth and get assessed.
 
Look…there are a lot of therapists that say that they “use McKenzie” in their treatment. Be wary of these therapists. McKenzie is not a treatment intervention, but an assessment process. If the therapist doesn’t have the initials denoting passing a certification exam or diploma exam, he/she is not using MDT at even a competent level.
 
Excerpts taken from:
Werneke MW, Edmond S, Deutscher D, et al. Effect of Adding McKenzie Syndrome, Centralization, Directional Preference, and Psychosocial Classification Variables to a Risk-Adjusted Model Predicting Functional Status Outcomes for Patients with Lumbar Impairments. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2016;46(9):726-741.

Keeping the customer/patient happy

 

“…owners and managers an no longer rely solely on the relationships they have built with referral sources to grow their practices”

 

Look at the drug companies…they know how to peddle their wares. Once it became mainstream to advertise directly to the consumer we have what is now known as the “opioid epidemic”. If we can advertise directly to the consumer, and give the consumer what they want…business will boom. We have to know what the consumer wants first though. Don’t try to sell them what we have, know what they want and then create the product. We know that patient’s primarily want education first. Give them a taste of the education during a seminar and then tell them that they have to schedule an appointment in order to get the rest of the information. It’s funny. I remember working for Bill Curtis at PT and Spine and he would refer to the magic treatment. In that patients are looking for that magic so that way they can take control of their own issues. If one is the owner, we want to give the patient the magic…but not on the first day. If we got paid for outcomes and not for the patient coming to the clinic, there would be more incentive to help fix the patient at the initial visit and not carry it on for the national average of 8-16 visits for the average orthopedic issue.  

 

“Even five years ago physicians largely dictated our referral patterns…hospital-based clinics and physician-owned practices are aggressively attempting to keep their patients “in-house”.  

 

Everyone in business wants money. THEY WANT YOUR MONEY! There is incentive to keep you going to the same company for every service performed. If you need an MRI, X-ray, PT, sports physical, etc it is very convenient if it is all under one roof. Now, who is making the money? I’m going to make it easy. If your mechanic finishes looking at your car and then says that you need $10,000 dollars worth of work, but he can do it all at once, what are you going to say? What if I say that you need $20,000 worth of work? How high do I have to take that number before you realize that it may not be legitimate needs to continue? The doctors/hospitals that own all of the above “services” may be doing the same thing, but you never see the costs because the insurance “covers” the cost.

 

“We are aware that patients can choose to receive therapy wherever they would like…”

 

Are the patients aware of this? If you go to the doctor and get a referral for therapy (it’s like a referral to any other practitioner), but the referral has the name of a specific clinic on it, does the patient realize that they can still go anywhere? IF YOU ARE A PATIENT AND ARE READING THIS…YOU CAN GO TO ANY THERAPIST THAT YOU WANT TO GO TO! Not all PT’s have the same training or even the same specialty. If you don’t see progress with your therapist after 6 visits, and you are given the words “it just takes time”, find a new therapist. Some things do take time, but hear it from 2-3 different therapists before you actually believe it.  

 

“We are not here to ‘fix’ a patient; we are here to partner with them in their rehab”

 

This is huge. I don’t fix you…I help you fix yourself. I play the role of cheerleader, teacher, listener, advisor, but at no point am I the “fixer”. When I see you for 2 hours per week, there are so many hours throughout the week in which you have to help keep yourself fixed by what you learn in the clinic.  

 

I realize that I can come across as negative with regards to the business of healthcare and unfortunately it is more of a realistic view than either pessimistic or optimistic. I have had discussions with those that audit clinics, researched the Department of Justice website for healthcare fraud, shadowed/worked/observed in unethical clinics and have heard patient stories from their times in other clinics. My view is personal, but real. When I say get a second or third opinion, it’s because you may have to go through that many different clinics before you find one that has your intentions at the forefront.  

 

Excerpts taken from: Stamp K. Happy Customers: How to create a positive patient experience. IMPACT. July 2016:31-32.