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On the road

Everyone that knows me knows that I listen to a lot a podcast during my commute. One of the things that I find more enjoyable than listening to a podcast, his actual interaction. Over the past month, I have spoken to about eight therapist from all over the country regarding clinical aspects of care and classification of symptoms. An excellent conversation this morning for about a half an hour, my commute is about 45 minutes to an hour, so I have plenty of time to chat. And we discussed research we discussed therapeutic alliance, we discussed patient’s expectations, we discussed chronic pain, We discussed classification of pain, and we just discussed clinical presentations that we commonly seen in the clinic.

I absolutely love dialogue!

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Life purpose and changes

“If you want to change the world, you have to enroll others in your plans and vision.”

Adam Robinson

About 2 years ago I started a blog. It was just for fun and the premise behind the blog is this “the only knowledge wasted is the knowledge not shared”. I saw this quote on a t-shirt; a blog was born.

My goal is to provide high quality content to readers through this blog in order to assist them with making decisions regarding choosing a health care practitioner. The secondary goal is to educate physical therapists at least up to the point of at patients. It sounds cynical that I believe that some patients have more knowledge than the PT, but I also believe that the patient has more to lose and more at stake than the PT.

The PT only has a paycheck at stake, maybe a reputation. The patient has life limitations and issues that may prevent them from truly experiencing life. That way more at stake than the PT has on the line. In this fashion, I have seen patients becoming smarter over the years through forums, FB groups, reading blogs and watching videos.

The reason why I say high quality content is because there are a lot of lies and misinformation on the World Wide Web (internet). Healthcare professionals prey on the weak and ignorant to take their money using scare tactics and unrealistic hype.

I ain’t got nothing to sell you other than making you a better human through work. Nothing ventured, nothing gained.

I have increasing demands on my time with a family, managing multiple clinics, treating patients and community involvement.

My posts will become fewer and fewer as I try to fit them into my life instead of fitting my life around my work.

Love your life or change it

Dr. Vince Gutierrez, PT

It’s like the Gamler by Kenny Rogers

“If you must play, decide on three things at the start: the rules of the game, the stakes, and the quitting time.”

Chinese proverb.

This is a lesson that learned later in life. I entered into an agreement under one pretense (set of rules) and after entering the agreement and quitting my job, the rules changed. At that point, I had to ride out the decision that I had made to quit and try to make the best of it.

I wasn’t fully aware of the rules; they changed during the game.

After making the decision to leave my current job, in order to open a clinic with a friend near where I created my following, it was decided that the clinic would be 35 miles away! This was a major blow because now I was starting completely fresh and had no following (although a few patients chose to make that drive). I was able to get in front of over 1,000 pairs of eyes in person and 160,000 pairs of eyes through social media and newspapers.

Unfortunately, I still didn’t know all of the rules until well into the game and at that point my wife and I realized that I couldn’t win the game and we started to discuss quitting time.

Luckily for me, I busted my ass to build my following in this new area. A local business wanted both my skills and my work ethic. The fact that I was able to bring new faces to the clinic was a bonus.

The clinic needed another PT within a few months and through hustle and blessings, I was also able to build a following among PTs, so finding another PT that wanted to work with me wasn’t difficult.

I am now making more money working fewer hours and learning more about the business of health care than I had during the previous 12 years of my career.

I had to learn the lesson the hard way.

Whenever you are entering into an agreement, both sides need to understand the rules of the game, the risks and rewards and when to call it quits.

“You got to know when hold em; know when to fold em; know when to walk away; know when to run.”

Self reflection

“Happiness is about understanding that the gift of life should be honored everyday by offering your gifts to the world”

We all have talents, skills, and/or practices that we have developed over time. In living our lives trying to foster these skills and talents, then providing these to others, life is lived. Many people that I come in contact with are taking from others, but not taking the time to understand how they can give. They have never spent time in self-reflection in order to understand how their experiences

Could help others, but instead looks at the experiences and grows disdain for those that didn’t have the same experiences.

In order to give to others, we have to first understand our gifts.

“Everyone has their own journey. People who offer great advice understand that their goal is to help someone on their unique journey. People who offer bad advice are trying to relive their old glories”

This is a great quote! Many other PTs throughout the country ask me my advice about the courses they should take and the way to treat patients with back pain or chronic pain.

I never tell students what to do with their careers. I never tell other therapists what courses to take. I give them my experience and the rationale for WHY I made the decisions I MADE in MY CAREER. This, at no point in time, is telling others what to do with his/her career.

Self reflection is a quality that we need to improve. In order to understand how to proceed in one’s career, the person has to first understand his/her own interests, personality (introvert, extrovert, ambivert), experience and wants. Some want to play the hero and will drift to manual therapy because they may be able to cowboy up one hands on technique that can turn off pain temporarily. The person may turn towards a method of exercise because they like to play the role of coach and teacher. Understanding the selfish wants of a career also helps one to determine what classes to take throughout the career.

Quotes by Mike Maples Jr.

Rehabilitation after a shoulder replacement: What’s the norm?

“There is growing belief among orthopaedic providers that how much formal physical rehabilitation a patient receives is influenced by the patient’s insurance and its willingness to pay for various postoperative therapies.”

This makes sense. Many patients aren’t aware of how much their insurance will cover regarding physical therapy. For example, Medicare will cover 80% of physical therapy after the deductible is met. The deductible is $183. In our state, average coverage of physical therapy is about $90/session. This means that the patient would be responsible for 20% of the $90, or $18/session. This makes the assumption that the patient does not have a secondary insurance that may cover the 20% that Medicare doesn’t cover.

Medicare will cover all PT that is considered medically necessary and cases that go above $3,000 are subject to a manual medical review. This would be about 33 visits per year. Speak to your PT about this in order to verify this information. Each clinic charges a little differently than others and these are the averages in my experience.

Unfortunately, many people that have Medicare as their primary insurance do not understand the physical therapy benefits associated with this insurance.

“A recent study challenged the need for formal physical rehabilitation after anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA), finding that a home-based, physician-guided therapy program provided similar results with lower costs.”

If a patient can get better without going to PT, we should all be in support of this.

This study tracked patients with Human, which included 20.9 million people. This is a huge sample size. This information was compared with a 5% sampling file of patients utilizing traditional Medicare. The study collected data for a long period of time, from 2010-2015 and the patients had to undergo a TSA or RSA (reverse shoulder arthroplasty). Rehablitation visits were tracked for 6 months after surgery, by tracking charges that are traditionally utilized in rehabilitation. Any date that a specific charge was utilized was counted as 1 visit.

The grouping was paired as follows: 0 visits of rehabilitation, 1-5 visits of rehabilitation, 6-10 visits of rehabilitation, 11-15 visits of rehabilitation, 16-20 visits of rehabilitation, 21-25 visits of rehabilitation, 26-30 visits of rehabilitation and greater than 30 visits.

“The study included 16,507 patients”

This was a huge number of patients. This strengthens the reach of the research. The more patients that are included in a research study, the stronger the statement can be made (regardless of the statement) at the end of the study.

“In general, the Humana cohort had higher overall physical rehabilitation utilization than did the Medicare population across all factors.”

Patients with Medicare are not treated in physical therapy as much as non-Medicare patients.

“The Humana and Medicare populations had a similar percentage of patients with 0 visits.”

“The Humana population had a higher percentage of patients in all visit categories above 1 to 5 visits”

“…with the Midwest having significantly less physical rehabilitation utilization, which is best demonstrated by 69% of patients in the Midwest undergoing only 5 or fewer physical rehabilitation visits, compared to only 54% of patients in the Northeast and 53% of patients in the West.”

This is the anomaly that I would like to know more regarding. Why do patients in the Midwest choose to not utilize PT? This could be poor education of patients regarding the importance of PT. It could also be that PT’s in the Midwest are following more of a HEP based protocol and only having patients return to update the HEP.

“the possibility of patient-directed rehabilitation at home having equivalent outcomes to formal office-based physical rehabilitation was brought to the forefront after Mulieri et al demonstrated equivalent outcomes after TSA when comparing the 2 therapy programs.”

This is a study that I will attempt to get in the next couple of weeks. If a patient does not need PT services in order to improve function, then Boo Hoo for our profession, but we have to do what is best and right by the patient. Should this study demonstrate that PT’s aren’t able to provide additional value beyond not performing therapy, then patient’s should not seek out PT.

I’d like to believe that we have a place in the rehabilitation process post TSA, but I also don’t think that our place is one of > 20 visits.

Excerpts taken from:

Wagner ER, Solberg M, Higgins LD. The Utilization of Formal Physical Therapy After Shoulder Arthroplasty. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2018;48(11):856-863.

 

One piece of equipment that may benefit your rehab process after a shoulder surgery is the following:

https://amzn.to/2BHMpX7

I find that over the door pulleys are easy to use and quick to install.

 

Plantar Fasciitis and Ultrasound: questionable at best

“The plantarfascia is a thick, nonelastic, multilayered connective tissue crossing the plantar part of the foot. Plantar fasciitis is the main cause of pain in the plantar surface of the heel.”

The plantarfascia is located at the bottom of the foot, between the heel and the toes.   It is very thick and a tough band.

A part of physical therapy school includes dissecting the human body.  Some people find this disgusting, but it is actually an honor.  We were told that only 5% of college students will ever be able to dissect the human.  The bottom of the foot is very intricate. There are multiple layers of muscles, but the plantar fascia is a very taut band that requires a scalpel in order to tear.  In other words, it is very strong tissue.

“In the United States, more than 2 million people are treated for plantar fasciitis every year…the most common signs for identifying plantar fasciitis are pain and tenderness in the medial …heel bone, as well as an increase in pain when taking first steps in the morning and pain in prolonged weight bearing.”

First, plantar fasciitis is mostly diagnosed through a patient’s history.

Second, there are a lot of people with plantar fasciitis that seek out treatment.

This leads us to the next statement from the article

“…researchers have not determined the most effective combination of treatments due to the dearth of high quality research in this area.”

Feel good about this condition yet? So many treatment options are available, but few with solid research to back them up.

If you are interested in learning more, check out this  Link

“One of the most widely used electrical devices among physical therapists in Israel and worldwide is therapeutic ultrasound…Yet there is insufficient high quality scientific evidence to support the clinical use of therapeutic ultrasound in treating musculoskeletal problems.”

I find it funny that PT’s should know this information and yet they act opposite of what the evidence indicates.  There are running jokes that using ultrasound may be just as effective turned off as when turned on.

If your PT continues to utilize ultrasound, ask why?

Sometimes the answer may simply be: it is easy, it can be charged and it will do no harm.

Treatment:

Both groups were given stretches for the Achilles/calf and the plantar fascia.  One group was issued ultrasound at a higher intensity in order to create a thermal effect and the other group was given ultrasound that was low intensity and not postulated to have any physiological effect, as the intensity was low and the depth of treatment was considered more superficial.

There was no significant difference in the number of treatments per group.

Result: There was no additive effect of ultrasound on the treatment of plantar fasciitis for pain, function or quality of life.

There are reasons to use ultrasound from a business perspective, but the more and more that I read research I find fewer reasons to perform the intervention medically.

Reference:

Yigal K, Haidukov M, Berland OM et al. Additive Effect of Therapeutic Ultrasound in the Treatment of Plantar Fasciitis: A Randomized Controlled Trial. J Orthop Sports Phys. 2018;48(11):847-855.

ACL rehab

“At 13 months post ACLR (Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction), individuals exhibited average knee extensor moments that were 17% smaller in the surgical limb during a bilateral squat against body-weight resistance”

ACL injuries tend to be noted in some non-contact sports such as soccer and basketball. Contact sports, such as football, also have ACL tears noted during contact, such as a tackle that makes the knee buckle inwards.

The patient with an ACL tear will typically opt for surgery if he/she plans on returning to some type of sporting activity. There is a debate as to whether or not to have the surgery if there will be no return to sporting activity.

After the ACL surgery, the research above notes that patients are less likely to use the surgical side during a squatting activity (think getting up from the toilet) and will push more with the non-surgical side.

This makes sense to me. After the surgery, the patient is in a locked long leg brace and is unable to move fluidly on the affected leg. The patient will not spend as much time on the surgical leg because of this and will transfer the weight to the non-surgical side. It becomes a learned habit to transfer the weight to the non-surgical side, but this is just my opinion.

 

“The persistence of under-loading is concerning, as asymmetrical limb loading during landing tasks has been linked to increased risk for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reinjury”

This is important! If we never get the patient to load the leg in order to improve strength and motor control (ability move in the way that the brain dictates), then the patient is at a higher risk of future injuries.

Let me clarify: if you squat and allow your legs to go wet noodle during the squat, it will look like a knocked-kneed version of a squat. This is not inherently horrible, but when asking the body to absorb a large load in this positon, when not trained to absorb this load, may lead to an injury. It all comes down to progressively loading specific positions in order to learn how to hold this position.

This is a major component of Olympic weightling compared to powerlifting. In the performance of the snatch (the most explosive movement in sports), maintaining proper position is extremely important for completing the lift. In powerlifting, the position may be able to be off a little and the athlete can overcome the small error in position.

With regards to ACL rehabilitation, it is important that we ensure that the patient is able to have enough strength to maintain positions without the load (bodyweight jumps, external weight, etc) dictating positional changes.

 

“…the bilateral multijoint nature of a squat allows for compensations that can shift the task demands to the nonsurgical limb (interlimb compensation) or to adjacent joints within the surgical limb (intralimb compensation) to reduce knee extensor moments.”

The bodyweight squat can be performed differently and switches the load from either the hip to the knee.

If you watch someone squat (recommended for all people that will attempt to squat), the person should both watch the knee and the hip. If you look at opening and closing, this will be much easier.

  1. Watch the knee to see how much the knee “closes” or how much the angle changes from the calf to the hamstring
  2. Watch the hip to see how much the hip “closes” or how much the angle changes from the trunk to the thigh

Which joint moves more?

This will help the reader to understand whether the knee joint muscles or hip joint muscles will be the dominant movers during the squat. Those that have knee issues will tend to move the hip joint muscles more than knee joint muscles.

I’ll make a video on this at a later date.

 

“…individuals 1 month post ACLR performed bilateral sit-to-stand tasks with a 38% reduction in vertical ground reaction forces (vGRFs) in the surgical limb”

This very simply means that the person is pushing less with the surgical leg than the non-surgical leg.

This means that the surgical leg is taking less force through it and will not be able to generate the same amount of power. Also, it is typical to see the patient weight shifting towards the non-surgical leg.

“reduced knee extensor moments have been found along with increased hip extensor moments…may rely on interlimb compensations to unload the knee during early rehabilitation but adopt intralimb compensations as they progress through rehabilitation.”

This goes back to the differences in a powerlifting based squat and an Olympic weightlifting based squat. The more upright the torso, the more that the knee takes a load and the less upright the torso, the more the back and hips will take the load.

I am having this exact conversation with a patient currently following an ACLR, attempting to get the patient to increase the load on the knee.

“During early rehabilitation, strategies for restoring symmetrical weight bearing during bilateral tasks should be emphasized and reinforced even during submaximal tasks…efforts should be made to continue to focus on sagittal plane knee loading and avoid compensation with the hip extensors.”

I tend to use a mirror for visual feedback in order to allow the patient to see the weight shift between the legs. This tends to fix the problems for weight shifting. We then progress to doing the squatting motion away from a mirror in order to build in positional awareness without the need for visual cues.

In order to improve the knee to hip ratio regarding which joint moves more, the cues will switch from sitting back on a chair (similar to a box squat which is hip hinge emphasizd) to emphasizing sitting between the feet (similar to an overhead squat) which is more knee joint driven.

If you don’t have a PT that understands how to squat, this may be a difficult movement to restore with physical therapy alone.

It may be prudent to ask your PT to describe a squat prior to starting therapy in order to ensure that your therapist has at least a baseline knowledge of squatting.

If the therapist doesn’t start describing multiple techniques for squatting based on body shape, then the therapist may not be well versed in the movement.

If you have any questions about squatting or ACLR rehabilitation…comment below.

Article: https://www.jospt.org/doi/abs/10.2519/jospt.2018.7977

 

You can find me at Primarycarejoliet.com and wherever you subscribe to podcasts at A physio’s perspective: movementthinker.

Second opinion

How many people will choose to get a second opinion before going in for a major surgery?

I would hope 💯%!

I had an awesome conversation about 10 years ago when I was visiting Canada. There was a guy that traveled to Canada in order to get an opinion regarding back surgery. He was from San Diego. That’s a pretty far trip to see if he needs back surgery.

I asked him why travel that far for an opinion and he said that he wanted to reduce any bias on the doctor’s part regarding whether he was a candidate. For instance, the doctor in Canada would not be performing the surgery and it was unlikely that the doctor giving the opinion would be able to benefit from recommending surgery, since the patient would have surgery in California.

He avoided going for the opinion in California because the hospital system would profit from the surgery. The surgeon may have an arrangement with the hospital to ensure that the hospital gets a percentage of the money. We know that the hospital will make money during a surgery. Many people stand to profit from a surgery and the patient would do well to get an opinion from someone that doesn’t stand to benefit.

This brings me to my rant for now. 👇

Why don’t patients get a second opinion regarding physical therapy?

1. It’s not a huge expense

Physical therapy, on average will cost the insurance company about $1200 per episode of care. If the patient is paying 20% for the coinsurance, then it will only cost the patient $240/episode. This works out to about $50/week.

That’s relatively inexpensive compared to a large surgery. The question is: why not spend an extra $25 to see if a second therapist agrees with the first? If there is a disagreement in how treatment should be performed, then the cost may not be the chief factor.

This leads us to 👇

2. All therapists do the same thing

Not all PTs are trained the same! Don’t let a non-PT (such as surgeon or family doctor) tell you that it’s all alike.

Not all surgeons have the same reputation and skills. Not all PTs have the same reputation and skills. The only way that you, as a patient, will know about other’s skills and reputation is to ask and try.

If you are absolutely in love with your PT or MD, then so be it. Sing from the rooftops so that the reputation gets built. If you’re not…try someone different.

Sometimes the grass IS greener.

3. Convenience

I get it. A drive around the corner is much easier than a drive for an hour. It makes sense.

If we believe that not all therapists have the same training or passion for treating a specific issue, then we must also believe that these therapists are worth the drive.

Follow this example:

1. Patient A decided to go to a therapist close to home or work (we know that regarding gyms most people won’t drive more than 15 minutes from work/home). The therapy session costs the patient $240 out of pocket and the insurance pays $1000.

Let’s also say that the patient is being seen for low back pain or sciatica, since this is the number one reason to seek PT. The patient is seen in a clinic in which the therapist is there to punch a clock and see as many patients as possible because that’s how 💰 is made.

The patient doesn’t get much better and then returns to the doctor for a series of shots (more money and time). The shots are a 50/50 chance of working.

Half of the patients will then still have pain and now be shuffled to the next step, either pain management or surgical consult.

2. Patient B spent a little time to search for the therapist in a 20 mile area that best treats low back pain or sciatica. The patient makes an extra 20 minute drive. The therapist decides that the patient would ben for from 8 visits of PT over 6 weeks and the patient gets better because the therapist enjoys the job and works well with patients having this diagnosis.

The patient made a little more of an effort up front, but saved 💵 and ⏳ by choosing the right therapist instead of moving further along in the medical system.

Want a second opinion, send me a message.

Considering a nursing home after surgery

“Moreover, older adults who are hospitalized are 60 times more likely to develop a disability than those who are not. ”

This is HUGE!

We know some of the common statistics such as an adult over 80 years that falls and breaks a hip has a high likelihood of death within one year.

There is some research about reserve capacity and the body’s ability to withstand a major obstacle such as a fall or hospitalization. Reserve capacity is essentially the amount of ability that a person has that exceeds daily needs.

For instance, if you typically walk 2.5 mph, but have the ability to walk at 5 mph, the reserve capacity would be the difference between usual speed and RESERVE gait speed.

“… recovery of function during a SNF stay is inadequate under usual care”

I’ve worked in a SNF and will attest to this based on experience. I stuck out like a sore thumb during my time in the SNF.

I got many of my patients up and walking. I would stand next to the patient to motivate, encourage and correct any safety issues that I noted during a movement or exercise.

Many of my “peers” were sitting at computers about 20-30 feet away from patients barking out directions from across the gym. The atmosphere was more party like for the roles of professionals, in which many conversations revolves around personal lives of the therapists, instead of the patient.

“The 2017 Medicare payment advisory commission reported no change in functional outcomes as measured by a patient’s ability to perform bed mobility, transfers, and ambulation.”

This is crazy! A patient goes to a rehab unit in order to rehabilitate to a safer functional level. If there are no changes in outcomes…why bother!

I did some research on total knee replacements when creating the protocol for our outpatient facility and there was much research showing that patients that went home after surgery did better than those that went to a “SKILLED” nursing facility.

Again…why bother!

There may be some lower level patients that need the nursing care at a facility like this, but we really do need to do a better job of planning a patient’s discharge from the hospital.

“specifically in SNF’s, annual expenditures comprise 50% of the $60 billion US allotted to post acute care. The discrepancy between high levels of spending in SNF’s and sub optimal outcomes strongly suggest the need for innovative clinical research designed to advance models of care delivery and assert the value of SNF rehabilitation therapists”

☝️ 🤔🤑

Leaving this one to stand on its own.

“… hospital discharge patterns away from SNF towards less costly home health or outpatient services.”

This makes sense and we are seeing this happen for some orthopedic cases that would previously be sent to a SNF. It took incentivizing hospitals and physicians to get them to change the way they treat patients.

“Nursing home literature suggests patient motivation to participate in treatment, such as physical therapy is linearly correlated to patient perceptions of and satisfaction with support from peers, family, and staff.”

Wonder why some patients may not be motivated to work with staff?

Read this article.

Excerpts from:

Gustavson AM, Boxer RS, Nordon-Craft A et al. Advancing Innovation in Skilled Nursing Facilities through Academic Collaboration. PTJ-PAL. 2018;18(3): 5-16