Piva SR, Gil AB, Almeida GJM, et al. A Balance Exercise Program Appears to Improve Function for Patients With Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Phys Ther. 2010;90:880-894.
Intro: 37% of TKA’s still have functional limitations p one year. Diminished walking speed, difficulty ascending/descending stairs, inability to return to sport are chief functional complaints. During TKA surgery several tendons, capsule, and remaining ligaments are retightened to restore the joint spaces deteriorated by the arthritis. Some of the knee ligaments are removed or released, which may affect mechanoreceptors/balance.
- To determine the feasibility of applying a balance exercise program in patients with TKA
- To investigate whether an F (functional) T (training) program supplemented with a balance exercise program (FT+B) could improve function compared to FT program alone
- To test the method and calculate a sample size for a future RCT with a larger sample size
METHOD: Double-blind pilot RCT (very strong evidence)
Inclusion: TKA in the previous 2-6 months (meaning not eligible for study if the TKA was before 2 months previous)
Exclusion: 2 or more falls in the previous year. Unable to ambulate 100 feet with an AD or rest period, acute illness or cardiac issues, uncontrolled HTN, severe visual impairment, LE amputation, progressive neurological disorder or pregnant (interesting exclusion criteria).
All went through a quadriceps muscle-sparing incision (cuts through the fascia of the patella instead of the quadriceps) this may be a factor in reducing rehab stay.
See the appendix for the protocol (6 weeks).
- Self-selected gait speed (interesting, but probably not feasible for our clinic)
- Timed chair rise test (5 repetitions): easily added to our testing.
- single leg stance time: easily added in
- Adherence for both groups is 100% and the HEP adherence was similar (filled out logs)
- walking speed continued to improve over the course of 6 months for the FT+B group and was 25% better than the FT only group.
- The interesting fact is that improvement continued up to 6 months, when previous literature describes 3 months and done.
- Single leg stance: FT+B improved (as expected due to SAID), but the FT group either maintained or worsened on speed and balance.
DISCUSSION: FT+B demonstrates clinically important differences in walking speed, SLS, stiffness and pain, without adverse events. Subjects in the FT+B could balance on average 4 seconds longer than baseline. This may be important for weight bearing during the stance phase of walking. Performance-based measures should be used in place of subjective measures.
TAKE HOME: Patients will benefit from the addition of balance exercises post-surgically. It may be prudent to discuss with the surgeons of increasing the length of stay in therapy and decreasing the number of visits per week, as progress continues to occur past the 3 months initially surmised. Each patient should be tested with one or more of the following:
- Chair rise test
- Gait speed: important indicator of function/independence/death
- Balance test (excluding Tinetti due to possible ceiling affect when the patient no longer needs an AD).
Dr. Vince Gutierrez, PT, cert. MDT