“In order to optimize the treatment effect, patients with LBP should be classified into homogeneous subgroups and matched to a specific treatment. Subgroup-matched treatment approaches have ben shown to result in improved outcomes compared with nonmatched alternative methods.”
There is more information coming out over time that demonstrates certain patients do well with specific treatments related to that particular patient.
Looking at the broad scale, there are many people with LBP across the world. Not everyone with LBP has similar symptoms or will respond to the same treatment.
For instance, if your pain gets worse with repeated or prolonged bending, prolonged sitting an standing slouched, your treatment will look differently than someone that gets better with the aforementioned activities.
This is what is meant by subgrouping patients into groups. We take the patient’s presentation and history and match that to an intervention that tends to work well for that group.
One such method of subgrouping can be found here.
This article will highlight a different approach to subgrouping, the Treatment-Based Classification System. This is a post that I previously wrote on this system.
“There are 4 primary LBP classification systems that attempt to match treatments to subgroups of patients using a clinically driven decision-making process: 1. the mechanical diagnosis and therapy classification model described by McKenzie, 2. the movement system impairment syndromes model described by Sahrmann, 3. the mechanism-based classification system described by O’Sullivan and 4. the treatment-based classification system described by Delitto et al.”
I won’t hide from my deficiencies. I am well versed in the MDT system and fairly well versed in the treatment based classification system. I am not well versed in the MIS or the MBC. I will limit my advice to that which I am knowledgeable.
Yet, these systems-without exceptions- have 4 main shortcomings:
- No single system is comprehensive enough in considering the various clinical presentations of patients with LBP or how to account for changes in the patient’s status during an episode of care.
- Each system has some elements that are difficult to implement clinically because they require expert understanding in order to be utilizied efficiently.
- None of these classification systems consider the possibility that some patients with LBP do not require any medical or rehabilitation intervention and are amendable for self-care management.
- The degree to which the psychosocial factors are considered varies greatly among these systems, which runs contrary to the clinical practice guidelines established by the American Physical Therapy Association (APTA) that advocate using the biopsychosocial model as a basis for classification.”
I will address these points regarding my knowledge of MDT and TBC. I will not address the MIS or the MBC due to my lack of knowledge regarding these systems.
1. No single system is comprehensive enough or accounts for changes in status during an episode of care.
First, I can’t fully agree with this statement. Yes, there is no system to date that can account for every patient that walks through the door. This is true. This is why a therapist must be well versed in multiple systems. For instance, MDT is a system that doesn’t take into account non-movement based pain presentations. When paired with an approach that takes this patient presentation into account, it makes for a great pairing.
The TBC does not account for change during the patient’s episode of care. Once a patient is classified and the intervention is applied, there is no algorithm for further improvement or progression.
This is not true though for MDT. For instance, a patient can be classified into one of three categories. The first two categories have built in progressions, regressions and modifications to movement. The third category is a category that doesn’t require much intervention aside from advice.
With the first category, derangement (another way to say this would be rapidly changing) there is a clear progression. Let’s start with the term derangement. No one likes this term to be used for patients. It’s a long running joke that we should never tell patients that they have a derangement. Words do matter and the patient’s perception of this term may be just as important as our expectations for the patient.
Now, moving on to the important part of the post. When a person is classified as a der…I mean a rapidly changing presentation, here is what the progression looks like in the clinic:
- Reduce the der…Dangit! I almost did it again. Make the symptoms better quickly.
- Make sure that the patient can maintain the reduction in symptoms.
- Return to the functional activities that the patient would normally do during the day without reproducing symptoms
- Teach how to prevent the symptoms from returning
That seems like a fairly simple strategy when bringing patients through a program in PT, but unfortunately this simple construct is lost on a lot of professionals.
Why you ask?
Thanks for asking.
Because unfortunately, there is no profit in getting people better. Shhhh….You didn’t hear it from me.
Regarding the second category of Mechanical Diagnosis and Therapy: Dysfunctional tissues, it also comes with a game plan that is easier to follow than the first, but not as fun to implement.
Also, the name dysfunction is another term that I have gotten away from in the clinic. Again, patients don’t want to be deranged or dysfunctional, although if given the choice, I would much rather have a derangement. They want to know is it going to improve and if yes, what’s the timeline.
These issues are like hamstring or achilles problems…they tend to get better if left alone until….WHAM! You goin for a quick sprint to keep your child from running out of the door at the grocery store. OR you run down the stairs because you are feeling froggy.
It let’s you know….DUFUS! YOU NEVER CORRECTED THIS PROBLEM!
This tissue issue (say that 5 times fast!) needs to be loaded to the point of pain and then allowed to recover before it is loaded again.
Like one of my mentors Annie O’Connor says in her courses “No pain… No gain…No guts…No glory”
This example is rarely used in therapy, but this is one case in which this example is fitting. Ideally, this tissue is loaded consistently. I have seen research that states the achilles tendon should be loaded about 1200X/week. That’s a whole hell of a lot of repetitions.
As a matter of fact, if you would like to read more about this, you can find a previous article that I commented at this link.
- “Each system has some elements that are difficult to implement clinically because they require expert understanding in order to be utilized efficiently.”
I would wholeheartedly agree with this statement. There is research that demonstrates good reliability when MDT is applied by those that have taken, and passed, the credentialing exam. It has been shown multiple times, but here is one of the more current articles.
The systems are not easy to use, nor should they be easy to utilize. It irritates me to no end when I hear about a therapist “using the McKenzie exercises” even though he/she has no idea regarding the wrongness of the statement. Open mouth…insert foot.
There has to be something sacrificed in order to learn a method or system. Time, money, life…these are all things that I sacrificed in order to get to where I am at in my career, which much to learn remaining.
“None of these classification systems consider the possibility that some patients with LBP do not require any medical or rehabilitation intervention and are amendable for self-care management.”
Again, can I disagree with these statements. At one of the MDT conferences (they blend together), Nadine Foster presented on the STarTBack screening tool. MDT is advancing to keep up with the research.
Those that keep up with the research or attend MDT-based conference, understands that not all patients require follow-up, or even an evaluation! Some patients do get better with time.
To follow-up with this, there is still one classification that I didn’t describe yet. This is the postural syndrome. In this syndrome, the patient has no signs or symptoms of a problem…unless he/she maintains one position for too long. Once the patient moves from that position…the symptoms disappear. It’s like Wizzo (it’s a Chicago thing). I bet you didn’t know that you were going to get a history lesson.
“The degree to which the psychosocial factors are considered varies greatly among these systems, which runs contrary to the clinical practice guidelines established by the American Physical Therapy Association (APTA) that advocate using the biopsychosocial model as a basis for classification.”
I agree with this, in that MDT or the TBCS doesn’t appear to utilize psychosocial factors in classifying patients. There is another classification that appears to be paired well with MDT. Check out this podcast with Annie describing this system.
This will be continued in the next article that goes more into depth on TBCS.
If you would like to read the article highlighted above, you can find it at this link.
Thanks for reading. For those that gained a little knowledge from this article…please share so others can learn about classification of low back pain.